In Pursuit of George G. M. James'

Study of African Origins in "Western Civilization"

By Yosef A. A. ben-Jochannan


Hippocratic Oath
Imhotep/Aescalapius I SWEAR by Apollo the physian, and Æsculapius, and Health, and All-heal, and all the gods and goddesses, that according to my ability and judgment, I will keep this Oath and this stipulationto reckon him who taught me this Art equally dear to me as my parents, to share my substance with him, and relieve his necessities if required; to look upon his offspring in the same footing as my own brothers, and to reach them this art, if they shall wish to lear it, without fee or stipulation; and that by precept, lecture, and every other mode of instruction, I will impart a knowledge of the Art to my own sons, and those of my teachers, and to desciples boundy by a stipulation and oath according to the law of medicine, but to none others. I will follow that system of regimen which, according to my ability and judgment, I consider for the benefit of my patients, and abstain from whatever is deleterious and mischievous. I will give no deadly medicine to any one if asked, nor suggest any such counsel; and in like manner I will not give to a woman a pessary to produce abortion. With purity and with holiness I will pass my life and practice my Art. I will not cut persons laboring under the stone, but will leave this to be done by men who are practitioners of this work. Into whatever houses I enter, I will go into them for the benefit of the sick, and will abstain from every voluntary act of mischief and corruption; and, further from the seduction of females or males, of freemen and slaves. Whatever, in connection with my professional practice or not, in connection with it, I see or hear, in the life of men, which ought not to be spoken of abroad, I will not divulge, as reckoning that all such should be kept secret. While I continue to keep this Oath unviolated, may it be granted to me to enjoy life and the practice of the art, respected by all men, in all times! But should I trespass and violate this Oath, may the reverse be my lot!

Isolating each papyrus in terms of its preposterous nomenclature we have the following:
(all times in BCE)

1700 [1] Kahum Medical Paparusa compedium of information about women's deseases and pregnacies.
1600 [2] Edwin C. Smith Papyrusa comparative surgical text, and anatomical inquiry. It expecially deals with the spinal column.
1550 [3] Ebers Medical Papyrusthe most extensive of all, and most collective of different authors and sources dealing withinternal medicine pregnancy, etc.
1550 [4] Hearst Medical PapyrusHearst Medical Papyrusan XVIIIth Dynasty masterpiece of specialized medical practices and practitioners in rural areas.
1550 [5] Erman Medical Papyrusmedicine mostly related to childbirth and pediatrics.
1350 [6] London Medical Papyrusan XVIIIth Dynasty theoritical document mixing medicine, majic and religion, etc. with special references to philosophical ideas, etc. Prayers are common sources of power.
1350 [7] Berlin Medical Papyrusan XIXth Dynasty reflection of most of the teachings presented in the Hearst and Ebers papyrus; particularly adopted to pregnancy determination and possibility of fertility, etc.
1350 [8] Chester Beatty Medical Papyrusdeals with the medical writings of Tet, or Neter-hotep, the Chief Physician of his era, diagnostic medicine.

The outstanding work by Paul Ghalioungyi, THE HOUSE OF LIFE: MAGIC AND MEDICAL SCIENCE IN ANCIENT EGYPT, and Chauncy D. Leake, THE OLD EGYPTIAN MEDICAL PAPYRI, although quite contempory and of "Western Academia," can be used to further support my findings. Richard Caton's work, I-Em-Hotep and Ancient Egyptian Medicine, equally deserves mention in this light.

Back-tracking somewhat to Professor James' Stolen Legacy, pages 177178, we find him saying the following about Moses of the Hebrew Religion, and Jesus-the Christ of the Christian Religion:

(6) All the great religious leaders from Moses to Christ were Initiates of the Egyptian Mysteries

This is an inference from the nature of the Egyptian Mysteries and prevailing custom.

  1. The Egyptian Mystery System was the One Holy Catholic Religion of the remotest antiquity.
  2. It was the one and only Masonic Order of Antiquity, and as such,
  3. It built the grand Lodge of Luxor in Egypt and encompassed the ancient world with its branch lodges.
  4. It was the first university of history and it made knowledge a secret, so that all who desired to become Priests and Teachers had to obtain their training from the Mystery System, either locally at a branch lodge or by travelling to Egypt.
           We know that Moses became an Egyptian Priest, a Hierogrammat, and that Christ after attending the lodge at Mt. Carmel went to Egypt for Final Initiation, which took place in the Great Pyramid of Cheops. Other religious leaders obtained their preparation from lodges most convient to them.
  5. This explains why all religions, seemingly different, have a common nucleus of similarity; belief in a God; belief in immortality and a code of ethics. Read Ancients Mysteries by C. H. Vail, p. 61; Mystical Life of Jesus by H. Spencer Lewis; Esoteric Christianity by Annie Besant, p. 107, 129129; Philo; also read note (2) Chapter III for branch lodges of the ancient world.

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