By Dr. Conrad W. Worrill (April 3, 2001) 

The current mobilization that inspires many of us in the National Black United Front (NBUF) and the December 12th Movement to aggressively organize to participate in the United Nations World Conference Against Racism is due to the impact that Malcolm X had on international affairs in the 1960’s and the role African Liberation Day plays in reconnecting African people throughout the world every year in May. (Malcolm X’s birthday is May 19th.) This conference is being held in Durban, South Africa from August 31st through September 7, 2001.

Since the late 1960’s, during the month of May, African people around the world celebrate African Liberation Day and Malcolm X’s Birthday. In Chicago, the National Black United Front (NBUF) is sponsoring an African Liberation Day and Malcolm X Birthday Commemoration, in honor of Baba Hannibal Afrik on Friday, May 18, 2001. This celebration will take place at Northeastern Illinois University’s Center for Inner City Studies located at 700 East Oakwood Boulevard. Doors open at 6:00 p.m. and the program will begin promptly at 7:00 p.m.

Baba Hannibal’s ascendancy as an organizer and leader in the Pan African / Nationalist Movement has its roots in the Malcolm X, Black Power, and African Liberation Day phase of our Movement. Baba Hannibal, through his establishment of the Shule Ya Watoto in 1972 as an independent alternative school on Chicago’s west side, was at the forefront of organizing Malcolm X commemorative events. He played a key role in the development of African Liberation Day in Chicago in 1973.

Baba Hannibal has played a leading role in the Reparations Movement since the founding of the National Coalition of Blacks for Reparations in America (N`COBRA). In this connection, Baba Hannibal has served as the National Co-chair of N`COBRA since 1995. His leadership has helped develop and expand N`COBRA’s role in the Reparations Movement in this country and internationally. This is Baba Hannibal’s final term as the National Co-chair of N`COBRA, and it is fitting that we honor his many contributions to the Reparations Movement and the African Liberation Movement in general.

It is important that African Liberation Day (ALD) and Malcolm X’s birthday be used as a vehicle to continue to highlight the problems, challenges, and future of African people everywhere. One of the issues the December 12th Movement and NBUF, along with other African people throughout the world, are organizing around is the inclusion at the United Nations World Conference Against Racism, the Africa Group Resolution that states the "Trans Atlantic Slave Trade was a Crime Against Humanity." It is clear, African people are owed reparations throughout the world. It is against this backdrop that we pay tribute to Baba Hannibal and celebrate African Liberation Day and Malcolm X’s birthday.

Now, I will continue with the history of African Liberation Day from Part I of this article. The colonial period in Africa, as well as the enslavement of African people who were captured and brought to North America, had a devastating impact on Africa and African people.

African people did not sit idly by. Just as we resisted our slave circumstances in America, African people resisted their colonial condition. Pan African meetings were called to plot strategy to end colonial rule. The Garvey Movement and the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) galvanized African people worldwide to embrace the idea of African independence under "One God, One Aim, and One Destiny." The Garvey period in our history, more than any other era, laid the foundation for what we now call African Liberation Day.

African people began waging a battle to reclaim their lands. This has been a long and bitter struggle. Resistance to white supremacy and colonial domination took many shapes and forms.

The Pan African meetings (1900-1945) provided a mechanism for a small group of African leaders to plan and plot strategy for African freedom. The Garvey Movement of the 1920’s brought the idea of African freedom and independence to the masses of our people around the world. "Africa for the Africans – At Home and Abroad," was a slogan that captured the spirit of African people. This slogan gave a clear understanding of who we are as a people and what we should be struggling for.

It was not until the early 1950’s that the first African country gained political independence in the movement to reclaim Africa. That country was Ghana, under the leadership of Kwame Nkrumah, who led the Ghanaian people to their fight against British colonialism. Shortly after this successful defeat of the British, Sekou Toure led the people of Guinea towards their independence from French colonialism. Right on the heels of this victory was the victory of Patrice Lumumba and the people of the Congo, who won the battle, for a brief moment, against Belgium.

This independence movement sparked an onslaught of African people reclaiming their territories and led to the formation of the Organization of African Unity (OAU) in May 1963. (This is why we celebrate ALD in May.) It was during this period that Malcolm X linked the struggle of African people in this country with the struggle of African people worldwide.

It is interesting to note that the Civil Rights Movement in this country was sparked in Montgomery (1955) at approximately the same time the independence movement in Africa began (1956-57). The call for Black Power (1966) sparked a discussion in the Black Liberation Movement in America that placed the re-identification with Africa and African people on the Movement’s agenda, once again. This renewed a new phase of the Pan African Movement.

The call for support of our brothers and sisters fighting against the Portuguese in Angola, Mozambique, and Guinea Bissau led to the formation of the African Liberation Day held in the country on May 27, 1972 that attracted over 60,000 African people. African Liberation Day has become an institution in America since that time.

African Liberation Day is a day when all Black people should come together. As I have emphasized many times before, whether you were born in Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya, Ethiopia, South Africa, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Jamaica, Belize, Bahia, Germany, England, France, Alabama, Georgia, or on 47th Street in Chicago, as long as you are Black, you are an African with a common heritage and a common set of conditions. We must continue to fight against racism and white supremacy wherever African people live in the world.

Look forward to seeing you on the May 18th Tribute to Baba Hannibal.

National Chairman
National Black United Front (NBUF)

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