The Nile Valley has been called the cradle of civilization. The first inhabitants of this area were the Ethiopians, a black skinned people whose descendants entered the valley through Nubia following the Nile River. Thebes and Moroe were among the first cities established and became the religious centers of Upper Egypt. The practice of Ammonism or the worship of the Good Ammon was the major religion (Ammon being the God of Gods).
It is said that the ancient Egyptians were a colony sent from Ethiopia by the god Osiris who was regarded as the leader of the colony. The Edfu text, an ancient scroll text, is another important source document on the origin of the Nile Valley. The inscription found at the temple of Horus at Edfu tells us that the origin of Egyptian civilization was taken from the south by a band of invaders led by King Horus.
This ancient culture has been traced back to the area of Somaliland, and quite possibly had its origin on the shores of the Great Lakes in Central Africa. Ruins have been found in Somaliland similar to the buildings in early Egypt.
Professor Arthur G. Brodeur asserts that the ancestors of the southern Egyptians came originally from Nubia. These earliest tribes of Egyptians were Hamites and Kushites (of Ethiopians ancestry).
Approximately 6000 years ago, the ancient Egyptians became conquerors and rulers of Upper and Lower Egypt. The first Pharoah of Egypt was Aha Mena or Menes, whose reign, according to various Egyptologist began anywhere from 5776 B.C.E., to 3300 V.C.E. In 1914 A.D., Sir Wallis Budge, late Keeper of the British Museum, stated that the earliest dates proposed by any Egyptologist are most likely correct.
The dynastic period lasted from about 6000 B.C. until 300 B.C. These dynastic periods were divided into four main groups. The Old Kingdom (Dynasties 1–4), The Middle Kingdom (Dynasties 11–14), The Empire Dynasties 18–20), and The Saite Age (Dynasty 26). In the 27th Dynasty, the country was overrun by the Persians and since that time Egypt has rarely been free of foreign rule.
Prior to the invasion of the Greeks in 325 B.C., Egypt was called Chem (kmt) or Ta-Merry. A very high level of civilization existed in Chem, the foundation of all of the arts and sciences of today were perfected at that time: astronomy, music, medicine, chemistry, geometry, calculus, art, rhetoric, etc. All of the aforementioned areas of learning reached their zenith in the ancient Mystery School of the Egyptians. Also, the origin of all the world's religions along with their spiritual, moral, and ethical codes all had their beginnings in the Egyptian mystery system schools (universities, temples, and lodges).